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cultivation of black henbane

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All information on the cultivation of black henbane

What is black henbane?

Black henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger L.) belongs to the solanaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants. Black henbane can be used to make histamine ampoules and other valuable medicines.

Botanical features

Black henbane is a 1-2 year old plant with a height of 1.5 meters. Its roots are thick and sometimes branched, reaching a length of 20 cm. In the upper part of the thick stem, it rarely branches from the middle or below and contains nearly straight, broad or simple branches covered with banded hairs or small, uneven and roughly dense tuberous hairs. The leaves are simple, rectangular, and have a crescent-shaped, serrated margin. The upper leaves are axillary and the basal leaves are petiolate. The calyx is 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, funnel-shaped and broad with a diameter of 2 to 3.2 cm. It has 5 lobes which are unequal. The calyx is round or almost decapitated, its opening is covered with dark purple reticulate veins and there are small, densely tufted hairs on the outer surface. The flowers are yellow or intense white and have short peduncles. The fruit of the plant is a berry, the seeds are small and light.

Pharmaceutical part

Aerial organs

Ecology of cultivation
  • It has been listed as a medicinal plant in many pharmacopoeias since the early eighteenth century.
  • Light, humus and a nitrogen-rich soil are necessary for the growth of this plant.
  • Initially, this plant grows slowly.
  • Animal manure can enrich the soil to increase the yield of this plant.
  • The following fertilisers are required for planting in the fall and the first year of planting.
  • 80 -100 kg of nitrogen per hectare
  • 70 – 80 kg per hectare of phosphorus oxide
  • 100 – 120 kg per hectare (in early spring)

Note: Application of 25 to 30 kg/ha of nitrogen as top dressing in the second year of cultivation accelerates growth and increases yields.


  • Seeds of this crop germinate when soil temperature is between 6 and 8oC in early spring.
  • Two-year-old seeds have a low viability and can only grow after they have survived the cold period.
  • Annual plants begin flowering in July and August and fruit ripens in late summer.
  • Biennial plants begin flowering in mid-spring and fruits ripen in early July.
  • – The seeds of this plant maintain their vigurity for 4 to 6 years.
Preparation of the soil
  • Deep plowing is critical for good plant growth and yield because it aerates the soil and prevents the spread of weeds.
  • In late summer or early fall to cultivate in autumn, plow the field, apply chemical fertilizers to the soil, level it, and then sow the seeds.
  • To prepare the soil for spring planting, it should be plowed deeply in mid-autumn and chemical fertilizers should be added after animal manure is added.
  • After the necessary fertilizers were applied, the field should be broken with a disk to prepare a suitable bed for cultivation.
Crop Rotation

Although it does not require any particular crop rotation, because of its sensitivity to herbicides, it is better to grow it with plants that do not cause the growth and spread of weeds.

Cultivation Method
  • Cultivation is done by seed. To increase the vitality of the seeds, the plant must be exposed to a cold period.
  • For spring sowing, the seeds are stored at a temperature of -8 to -10°C for three weeks. During this period, these seeds should be planted two to three times, each time being relocated for 10 to 12 hours at laboratory temperature (20 to 25°C).
  • Since black henbane grows slowly in its first year and is sensitive to pesticides, it is best to combine seeds of this plant with the fast-growing plants seeds such as mustard. This way, the rows of black henbane can be established as it grows and weeding is easy.
  • Since this plant is sensitive to pesticides, you should pay attention to the amount and concentration of pesticides used.

A suitable pesticide is Gramaxon, as it can be used as a foliar spray at a rate of 2.5 to 3.5 kg per hectare. Weeds should be controlled mechanically 2-3 times in the first year of cultivation and once a year in the second year.

  • Black Hanabe can be harvested in the first year of cultivation. The flowers are harvested from the end of June. In addition, the leaves can be harvested 2-3 times a year depending on climatic conditions.
  • We can obtain 800 to 1000 kg of dry leaves from 5 to 7 tons of fresh leaves and 1,700 to 2000 kg of dry stems from 11 to 14 tons of fresh stems.


Collecting seeds
  • The seeds ripen in June to July. After ripening, the fruits will be opened and their seeds are scattered, so they must be harvested before they open.
  • The harvested fruits should be dried and the seeds should be separated.
  • When collecting the seeds, you should wear gloves and masks, because the seeds contain dangerous alkaloids.
Medicine Therapeutic properties of black henbane
  • Drowsy
  • Antispasmodic
  • Pain killer
  • Against flatulence
  • Anti-salivary secretion
  • Treatment of gout
  • -Treatment of rheumatism
  • Treatment of mastitis
  • Treatment of ear inflammation
  • Treatment of toothache
  • Treatment of heartburn
  • Treatment of indigestion
  • Treatment of toothache
  • Treatment of painful menstruation
  • Treatment of uterine pain
  • Treatment of joint pain
  • Treatment of nerve pain
  • Treatment of general pain
  • Treatment of melancholic anxiety
  • Food
  • Local
  • Pregnant women
  • Breastfeeding women
  • Children under 12 years of age
  • Patients with kidney disease
  • Patients with liver failure
  • Cardiovascular patients
  • People with glaucoma
  • Patients with megacolon
  • Patients with prostate disorders
  • Patients with pneumonia
  • side effects
  • Visual disorders
  • Urinary disorders
  • Hot flashes
  • Constipation
Side effects of overdose
  • Poisoning
  • Reddening of the skin
  • Dry mouth
  • Dilatation of pupils
  • Increase of heart rate
  • Restlessness, delusions and madness

Note: Please consult your doctor before using this herb.

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Supplier of black henbane

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Global export of black henbane

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