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International shipping methods

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International shipping methods

What is international shipping?

International shipping: Today, countries have extensive trade relations with each other, imports and exports of goods have expanded widely, and international transportation is one of the main pillars of international trade and foreign transit.

In the modern world, goods are offered on a large scale, and the price is the most important factor for the export and import of goods. In the price of goods, one of the factors that cause the supply of goods internationally is the price of transporting goods.

If the goods have a reasonable shipping price, it will lead to the formation of international supply.

International transport development factors
  • Increase investment in international transport
  • Population growth and increasing demand for goods ordering internationally
  • Expansion of sea, air, land transportation network
  • Tracking the location of goods
International transport types
  1. Air transport
  2. Road transport (road and railways)
  3. Sea transport
  4. Multiplex transport
1- Air Transport

Air transport is one of the newest methods of international transportation, and is considered as one of the indicators of economic growth. International air freight rates are set by the International Air Transport Association. IATA: (International Air Transport Association)

Advantages of air transportation method

  • It is the fastest method of transportation and the possibility of delay in arrival of goods is very low.
  • Suitable for transporting perishable goods.

This is the safest way to carry expensive goods such as diamonds.

  • Its clearance is faster than other methods.
Disadvantages of air transportation method
  • Not suitable for carrying goods with high tonnage and volume.
  • This type of method is the most expensive method of transporting goods.
  • The load carrying capacity of this type of method is low.
  • There is a high risk of falling due to cold weather and bad weather.
2- Land transport:
2-1: Road Transport
Advantages of road transport method
  • Door to Door shipping.
  • In international trade, the CPT method is mostly used for land transportation.
  • To carry Door to Door, you must use full carry.
  • Covers more areas for transportation, including villages.
  • Provides the possibility of transporting goods door to door or warehouse to warehouse.
  • Delivery time can be flexibly scheduled.
  • In this method, it provides the possibility of instantaneous tracking and tracing of the goods, by contacting the driver.
  • Faster than rail and sea attack.
Disadvantages of road transport method
  • The risk of damage to goods due to road accidents or adverse weather conditions in this method is high.
  • Not suitable for long distances because it increases the risk of timely arrival of goods.
Types of trucks for international transport


Truck انواع کامیون
Tanker Truck کامیون مخزن دار
Double Deck Truck کامیون حمل اتومبیل
Bulk Trailer Truck کامیون مخصوص بار فله ای
Refrigerated Truck کامیون یخچالی
Open Top Truck کامیون رو باز
Flat Truck کامیون کفی
Jumbo Truck کامیون مخصوص بار حجیم
Articulated Hauler (Articulated Dump Truck) کامیون کمرشکن
Boggie Truck کامیون بوژی


Articulated truck: It has a carrying capacity of up to 58 tons.

Boggie trucks: It has many axles, each axle has 8 wheels and it is not used in international transportation.

2-2: Railway transport
Advantages of rail transportation method
  • This type of method is known as green transportation method, because the amount of air pollution is much less than other methods.
  • The cost of transporting cargo is cheap and economical due to the volume, weight of cargo.
  • Rail transport complements the maritime transport method.
  • Suitable for carrying in high volume and weight.
  • This method is used in combined transport.
  • In international rail transport, shipping is done through several countries.
  • The safety of this method is very high compared to other methods of transportation.
  • Reduces traffic and accidents.
Disadvantages of rail transportation method
  • Internationally, the commercial transport of goods from the country of origin to the destination is not available everywhere and has less coverage than other methods.
  • Any kind of goods cannot be transported by this method.
  • Its speed is low and in cases where the customer needs fast delivery, this shipping method is not suitable.
3- Shipping method
Advantages of sea freight method
  • The best way is to send goods with high volume and tonnage.
  • It is the cheapest and most economical method of transportation.
  • The shipping cost is fixed in this method.
  • It is possible to transport goods jointly or in groups (Less Than Container Load Groupage).


Disadvantages of shipping method
  • Shipping speed is slower than other methods.
  • Does not cover all areas, as not all countries have access to the sea.
  • Pollution of the sea surface and extinction of some animal species.
  • The safety of goods may be compromised by tsunamis, bad weather and pirate attacks.


4- Multiple transport Method

This type of method uses several different means of transportation.

In combined transport, the national bill of lading and the Fiata bill of lading are used.

TBL- Through Bill of Loading

This bill of lading is used in land transportation (railway and truck) and seaway.

FBL- Fiata Multimodal Transport

One of the most important documents used in international trade is shipping documents.

The International Federation of Fiata Forwards has designed and approved uniform shipping documents.

Fiata Multimodal Transport bill of lading is one of the most important of these documents, which is a nationwide shipping document for the carrier company. This bill of lading is valid and authentic with banks, insurance and shipping companies.

This type of bill of lading is used for transportation by truck, rail and ship.

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