What Is Saffron?
sufferon flower: Dried stigma of Crocus Sativus L. plant belongs to Iridaceae family contains at least 0.4% essential oil w/v%.
- Scientific name: Crocus Sativus
- Latin name: Crocus Sativus
- English name: Saffron, True Saffron, Day Saffron, Crocus
- German name: Safran, Echter Safran, Gewurzsafran
- French name: Safran, Safran D’automne, Safran Officinal, Safran Cultive
- Persian name: Zaaferan, Kaisar, Rofoon
- Arabic name: Kerooko, Al-zaaferan
Saffron is a perennial and low growing plant, 10-30 cm high; flowers are purple and relatively large.
The plant is perennial and short, at a height of 10 to 30 cm, approximately spherical, leaves are long and linear, 6 to 10 and 10 cm in length, grows directly from a rattan corm underground. The flower of saffron is purple and fairly large. Inside, there are three stamens (male) and stigma, pistil and ovary (female) of saffron.The long pistil or rod leading to a three-threaded stigma extends which forms the famous stigma of saffron, in form of a red and orange fiber.
Very high quality saffron is only the part of the stigma, which is the tip end of the pistil, but it often collected with stigma and often mixed which makes saffron low quality. The taste is bitter and strong in aroma.
- Essential oil yield vary from 0.4 to 1.3% and include: Safranol, B-γ-carotene, Lycopene and Picrosin.
- Essential oil yield vary from 0.4-1.3 %. Iranian saffron stigmas contain at least 0.4% essential oil. Major components of which are compromised out of Safranal, Butanolc Acid Isopropyl Ester and Pentan.
- Saffron corm is poisonous from chemical point of view and using too much orally will cause death for animals. Too much orally use is opiate.
- A glycoside named Crocin, Crocetin and Picrocrocin are present in saffron. Additionally Safranol, B-γ-carotene, Lycopene and Picrosin are also present in saffron.
- The colorful compound of saffron is due to Crosin or Crocoside.
- Essential oil aroma is due to Safranal. Picrocrocin or Picrocrosinoside is hydrolyzed to glucose and Safranal and Crosin or Crocoside the colorful compound which is carotenoid is formed. This compound is then hydrolyzed to Gentiobiose and Crosetin.
- Saffron contains a complex of yellow color glycosides and additionally contains glysirin esters of palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Lauric acid and Oleic acid, vitamin B1, B2, starch, α-β and γ carotene, zantophile, Hentriacontane, Lycopene and Zeaxanthin.
The tip end of the stigma of saffron is the medicinal organ.
Global: India, Iran and parts of Europe
Distribution in Iran
Fars (Shiraz, Firooz abad), Arak (Oshtoran mountains between Arak and Azna), Kermanshah (Dalakhani between Arak and Kermanshah), east Khorasan especially Ghaenat.
Flowering time is September to October and should be collected early morning by flower open.
Saffron is divided in 4 types, namely: bunch, pooshal, sargol and negin.
- Bunch saffron: this type include stigma along with pistil, red color part (stigma) along with stalk are placed neatly on each other and form a bunch. This type is called daughter bunch and locally Manjil as well. Color making ability of saffron bunch is ranged between 120-150 units.
- Pooshal: it includes strips with 2-3 mm pistil attached. In fact the red part along with pistil is the saffron. This type actually is the higher purity and completely dried look of the bunch saffron.
Note: Stigma is the red color part and pistil is the yellow color part of the saffron.
- Sargol (premium quality): it is completely pure and bears no pistil. To achieve this type of saffron red parts (stigma) are separated from the pistil. Color making ability of saffron bunch is ranged between 210-260 units.
- Negin: this type is the highest value of saffron due to high color making ability and large strips. The most pure negin saffron is called super negin. Negin has a very good export trading market and the request is much more than other types.
Most pure saffron is redder in color and purity is correlated positively with red color. Yellow parts (pistil) are more observed in less pure saffron.
Use frequency, amount and time of use
5 teaspoons of powder added to 2 liters of boiling water and drink a cup after 10 minutes. Maximum daily use is 3 cups. Daily powder use should not exceed 650 mg.
breast feeding and patients exposed to allergy
Side effects: Diarrhea, vomiting and sargijeh
Keep away from light and humidity and in metal or glass packages.
Fraud in saffron occurs by mixing it with other plants, and it is possible that other parts of the flower of the saffron plant are artificially painted.
Saffron is often blended with counterfeiting with some herbs or it’s mistaken. These plants include:
- Ligule flowers of Astraceae family Calendula officinalis colored with methyl orange or methyl red before.
- Ligule flowers of Carthamus Tinctocine commonly known as Safflowerd or American saffron from Astraceae family
- Ligule flowers of Onopordon Acanthium from Astraceae family colored artificially
- Stigma of Crocus Venrus from Iridaceae family
- Other parts of the saffron flower which is colored artificially.
Maleki commercial the biggest saffron exporter
Maleki commercial is the biggest exporter of saffron in Iran and over the world. Maleki commercial exports super negin, negin, sargol and pushal types according to customer demand in forms of EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP, FOB, FAC, CFR, CIF.
Global saffron export
Maleki commercial, the global exporter of saffron with highest safranol, crocine and picrocrocine among all companies. This holding has gained a lot of success in this trade. If you need high quality saffron you can buy best qualities and packs with high confidence.
Saffron price in Iran
Maleki commercial exports saffron with highest active ingredient content to Europe, American and Asia, under Elisso sky’s brand with best price willing to gain more
satisfaction for its customers.
Saffron supplier in Iran
Maleki commercial is ready to sell high quality saffron to customers all year round. We guaranty all our products through sea, air or post export.
Maleki commercial is warrantor to its customers and answers through differnt contact ways. Customers are the main base of this company. We send all orders of our products worldwide with no doubt and lateness.